Tuesday, September 29, 2015

The Postscript of Iran and the United States over the Nuclear Deal

In a previous post, I mentioned Capitol Hill opponents to the Iran nuclear deal were working hard to repeal it. However, they failed to reach two-third majority in the third vote to overturn the deal. As a result, the President’s bill has passed the Senate (“Last bid to kill Iran nuclear deal blocked in Senate”; Reuters; September 17, 2015). Despite that, four Democrat senators of Ben Cardin, Joe Manchin, Bob Menendez and Chuck Schumer voted against the deal for all the three times, along with Republicans (“Senate Dems stonewall Iran resolution, handing victory to Obama”; Hill; September 17, 2015).

However, opponents have not given up hope to impose restrictions on the nuclear deal to prevent cheating by Iran. They call for reauthrozing the Iran Sanctions Act in 1996 to pressure foreign companies not to invest in Iran's oil and gas industries, when Iran does not comply with the deal. In parallel with this, they endorse military aid to Gulf Arabs and Israel to bolster their deterrence against Iran. Furthermore, inspection takes a long time, and conflicts between Iran and the global community may happen. Opponents will demand strict compliance to Iran (“Iran nuclear deal is done, but not the debate in Congress”; AP; September 19, 2015). Remember, disagreements between UN inspectors and Saddam Hussein triggered the Iraq War.

Cooperation among P5+1 is founded on the house of cards. Disagreements over Syria split the stakeholders of the nuclear deal. While Russia and Iran sponsor the Assad administration to defeat ISIS, the United States backs the Free Syrian Army to replace Assad with a democratic regime. Saudi Arabia fears growing Iranian influence in Syria through their support to Assad (“US-Russia tensions on show as Putin and Obama clash over Syria”; Guardian; 28 September, 2015). As tensions between both regional powers get intensified, mutual trust between Iran and the rest of the world will grow increasingly fragile.

Friday, September 25, 2015

The Real Will of the Japanese Public at the Friendship Festival in Yokota Air Base

So many people at the US-Japanese Friendship Festival

The US-Japanese Friendship Festival was held on September 19 and 20 at Yokota Air Base of the USFJ (US Forces in Japan) and the JASDF (Japan Air Self Defense Force). The Friendship Festival this year needs more attention than ever. That is because the security bill had passed in the House of Councilors through excessively emotional partisan battle, early on September 19, just before the festival. How this event is taken among the public is a critical test to know the real will of the Japanese that has not revealed in media reports and academic researches. The bottom line is that the media attitude was wrong to over-evaluate opponent voices. That is because innumerable number of visitors and vibrant atmosphere of the Friendship Festival show strong support for the US-Japanese alliance and the defense law among the Japanese public eloquently, whatever they say.

The Osprey draws so many visitors.

This security bill caused huge street demonstrations in front of the National Diet by left wing and liberal opponents such as SEALDs (Students Emergency Action for Liberal Democracy-s), and the media paid great attention to them as the return of the conflict over the US-Japanese security treaty in 1960. The demonstrations were so big that Katsuya Okada, Leader of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), branded the bill as a neglect of people’s voices. Certainly, so many people occupied Nagatacho, and shouted loudly against the security bill. But do they really represent Japanese public opinion, both in terms of logic and emotion? We must bear in mind that left wing groups are adept in mobilizing people to such street rallies. According to the introductory theory of political science, a strongly united and firmly directed organization can exert more influence than the majority of people. It is quite doubtful how much Nagatacho occupiers represent Japanese public opinion.

Incredibly many people are waiting to get on board AWACS.

On the other hand, citizens visited the US-Japanese Friendship Festival in Yokota AirBasewere not mobilized by any organization, and they came there voluntarily. Usually, it takes about 15 minutes from Ushihama Station on the JR Ome Line to the base on foot, but it took more than one hour when I visited there. The police arranged the cue of visitors to to go by a roundabout route, so that the huge crowd would not obstruct the traffic of people in the neighborhood. Even before entering the base, such an immense crowd showed high support to the USFJ and the SDF, and their popularity, and it was hardly imaginable that base visitors were Japanese citizens as Natagacho occupiers were. On our way to the base, we found about 20 activists of the Democratic Youth League of Japan were demonstrating against the security bill, but visitors to the US-Japanese Friendship estival are the least likely to listen to what they say. Their rally was simply scorned and scoffed.

GIs and a Japanese girl

In the end, I managed to enter the base, but I had to wait very long at every pavilion and exhibition. Also, numerous visitors took photos with American soldiers. Seeing scenes like these, you will realize immediately, which group do Japanese people trust, the USFJ and the SDF, or SEALDs and Professor Emeritus Setsu Kobayashi of Keio University. Nagatacho occupiers ignored silent voices among the public, and behaved as if “L’opinion publique, c’est nous (We are the public opinion)”. That attitude is quite like that of Louis le Grand, and thus, they are not eligible to call themselves civic activists at all. Politicians who misunderstand public opinion like DPJ leader Okada, should pay attention to people who welcome the US Forces simply and frankly. Such innocent support for the US Forces and the Self Defense Forces is widespread not only among visitors came to the base from somewhere far away by train. People living around the base enjoyed the festival in the neighborhood, and entered the facility to see the firework at night. Unlike Okinawa where left wingers come from the mainland, US Forces in Yokota are on good terms with the local community.

Pax Americana? People rest peacefully on the ground.

In view of these, I would question biased coverage by the media that takes up voices of opponents to the security bill, which has emboldened them more than necessary. They are supposed to listen to silent voices among the public. In addition, opponent parties shouted impatiently, “People do not understand”. However, innumerable number of people showed empathy and understanding to the USFJ and the SDF. The US-Japanese Friendship Festival at Yokota Air Base says it for itself. This implies that acceptance to the security bill that promotes further US-Japanese defense cooperation is spreading quietly among the public. Understanding of this defense law is dependent on the will much more than the brain. It will end up in vain to tell the transition of international affairs and its Hobbesian nature to doctrinaire unilateral pacifists like Nagatacho occupiers. Those who do not want to understand shall never understand whatever they hear. The real grassroots are visitors to Yokota Air Base. Therefore, when the government execute the bill after the vote, they should consider which groups’ voices need to be most seriously taken into account.

Friday, September 18, 2015

Unlikely Détente between Iran and the United States

Some hope that Obama’s nuclear deal will pave the way for a détente between Iran and the United States. But as I repeatedly say on this blog, that is unlikely. The nuclear deal itself faces vehement bipartisan criticism in the Congress and concerns among American allies in the Middle East. Though the Senate vote failed to reach two third majority on September 10 (“Lawmakers Against the Iran Nuclear Deal”; New York Times; September 10, 2015), Senate Republican leader Mitch McConell calls for the third vote on Thursday to reject the deal (“Senate Dems block vote to disapprove of Iran deal”; AP; September 15, 2015). Also, Republicans even suggest to sue the Obama administration for the side deal of this agreement which is not open to the public (“U.S. Republicans Threaten To Sue To Stop Iran Nuclear Deal”; Payvand Iran News; September 12, 2015).

Moreover, proponents of the nuclear deal are not optimistic about the US-Iranian relationship, as Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton blames President Barack Obama for abstaining from helping the Green Movement in 2009 (“No Love for Obama”; Weekly Standard Blog; September 9, 2015). Obama may be exploring a diplomatic breakthrough with Iran, but his presidential term expires in a year or so. Clinton’s comments substantiates my view that whether Democrats or Republican wins the forthcoming presidential election, tensions between Iran and the United States will be intensified after Obama.

The deal is inherently full of defects and loopholes. Senator Marco Rubio, who is running for Republican presidential nomination, raises ten points to argue why the nuclear deal is so problematic. The most critical one is suspected side deal between Iran and the IAEA, that could jeopardize the whole agreement. Also, inspections are filled with loopholes as Iran can conduct computer modelling for explosive test of nuclear materials. In addition, centrifuges can be moved secretly, and more dangerously, Iranian officials assume that the deal permits them to deny access of UN inspection to the site, if they think it necessary. Along with the side deal and inspection, an imminent problem is that sanction lifting enables Iran to fund terrorists and buy more weapons (“Ten Things That Every American Should Be Concerned About In The Iran Deal”; MarcoRubio.com). Among possible arsenals, American opinion leaders are critically concerned with Iran's ICBM development to destroy the US mainland ("Off-Target: The Folly of Removing Sanctions on Iran’s Ballistic Missiles"; National Interest; August 17, 2015).

Due to these defects, Former Vice President Dick Cheney comments sarcastically that this deal is historically unique to allow the enemy to attack US homeland directly. See the video below.

When sanctions are removed, Russia and China will export their arms to Iran. Prior to the Vienna negotiation this July, Russia announced to sell S-300 anti-air missile, which made Israel frown in displeasure, but Obama approved of it (“Russia-Iran relationship is a marriage of opportunity”; Washington Post; April 18, 2015). This missile is almost identical to the Chinese copy of HQ-9, that caused controversies among NATO and Japanese security experts when China explored to sell it to Turkey and South Korea. Russia’s action inflicts a dreadful impact on Middle East security, and Israel has every reason to question Obama’s Iran policy. Will Russia and China sell more weapons to Iran? I am alert to their export of carrier killer missile to Iran as China demonstrated DF-21D on the 70th day. The Iran nuclear deal can erode maritime dominance of the US Navy in the Persian Gulf.

Also, geopolitics in the Gulf area is inherently unstable. Ever since the Islamic Revolution, Arab neighbors do not trust Iran. This is typically seen in their support to Saddam Hussein during the Iran-Iraq War. Arab kingdoms like Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Jordan are extremely conservative, and they are ideologically at odds with Ba’athist Iraq. However, Iran’s national ideal to export Shiite revolution upset Sunni monarchies so much that they depended on Iraq to counter the Iranian threat. This alliance was so fragile as shown in Saddam’s invasion to Kuwait latter days. Today, the nuclear deal stimulates Arab anxiety to the Iranian threat so much that they are building up their defense capabilities rapidly. Saudi Arabia holds talks to buy advanced frigates and THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) anti-ballistic missile system from Lockheed Martin (“Saudi Arabia, U.S. near deal for two Lockheed warships: sources”; Reuters; September 2, 2015). Also, Kuwait reached an agreement with Italy to purchase 28 Typhoon fighters. The Eurofighter consortium is eyeing on Bahrain for the next Typhoon contract (“Typhoon scores in Kuwait “; IHS Jane’s 360; 15 September 2015).

These movements imply that Europeans are no daydreamer to believe that the nuclear deal with Iran will bring peace and stability to the Gulf area. They endorse the deal because they want new market and energy source after lifting sanctions. France has already found a naval base in the United Arab Emirates during the Sarkozy era (“France Opens First Military Base in Persian Gulf Region”; Washington Post; May 27, 2009). Also, Britain agreed to build a naval base in Bahrain last year. UK Foreign Secretary Phillip Hammond told that Britain and France would fill the vacuum in the Middle East in view of the pivot to Asia by Obama’s America (“Britain returns 'East of Suez' with permanent Royal Navy base in Gulf”; Daily Telegraph; 6 December, 2014). In addition, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu meets with Obama so often to urge him to understand the real threat of Iran, and act more steadfast against them (“Obama likely to meet Israel's Netanyahu in November, White House says”; Reuters; September 11, 2015). Now, I would like to ask the following question: When SALT agreements were concluded, did European allies and Japan behaved so upset against the Soviet threat?

In addition to the regional security environment, we should talk about Iranian politics. With or without the nuclear deal, Iran is still unyielding. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei stated clearly that this deal was an exceptional case, and he still curses the United States and Israel, and sponsors the Assad regime in Syria (“Iranian leader: No wider talks with Washington after nuclear deal”; Washington Post; September 9,2015 and “Khamenei: Israel will no longer exist in 25 years”; Al Monitor; September 9, 2015). The Revolutionary Guard said furthermore that they were ready to annihilate America and Israel (“Iran Welcomes War With The U.S.”; Value Walk;September 4, 2015). President Hassan Rouhani and Foreign Minister Javad Zarif are supposed to be moderate. However, Max Boot, Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, comments it is too wishful to regard Rouhani as another Gorbachev, because he is not interested in democratizing Shiite theocracy, and has not abandoned expansionism in the neighborhood, while Gorbachev did not suppress freedom quest in Eastern Europe right after the fall of the Berlin Wall (“Iran's Rouhani: He's no Gorbachev”; Los Angels Times; November 24, 2013). In addition, we must bear in mind that the Supreme Leader is inherently hardliner as he represents Shiite theocracy, and his power rests on dogmatic loyalists like the Revolutionary Guard. However moderate the president is, it is extremely difficult to overcome this.

Even if the nuclear deal is concluded, the US-Iranian détente is quite unlikely. American allies in Europe and the Middle East understand this. However, Japanese legislators are even asking a too introductory question to discuss the security bill, whether there is an existential threat in the Persian Gulf. But the threat of Iran is so great. The nuclear deal is no guarantee of regional peace. Never cherish any wishful thinking about it.